The invasion mechanism of the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is similar to that of SARS in 2003. Recent studies have proposed that "nasal epithelial cells may be the initial point of entry for SARS-CoV-2 infections", an article in "Nature Medicine" pointed out that the goblet cells and ciliated cells in human nasal epithelial cells are likely to be the initial infection point of SARS-CoV-2 and are highly related to immune initiation (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41392 -021-00591-7). If we can administer appropriate drugs into the nasal cavity to the patients, would help protect the mucosa(mouth, nose, or eyes), have effects of early treatment, and prevent transmission.

The COVID-19 immunotherapy drug AD17002-SC, its immune modulation and anti-inflammatory properties could prove to be a safe and effective prophylactic treatment of SARS-CoV-2 and a therapeutic treatment of COVID-19. Its safety and effectiveness have already been established in previous studies as an adjuvant therapy intranasally administered with a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (Pan et al. 2019; Pan et al. 2020) as well as a single agent for allergic rhinitis (in reporting). The immunopharmaceutical profile supports AD17002-SC as a treatment for COVID-19 both prophylactically and therapeutically. As an immunomodulator, AD17002-SC enhanced the expression of Type I IFN from epithelial cells (Lin et al. 2014; Kuo et al. 2020). Type I IFN is known to initiate innate immunity to prevent viral infection in uninfected cells and defending virus in infected cells. The recent nonclinical study showed that AD17002-SC used to treat SARS CoV-2-induced COVID 19 in hamsters was able to improve the histopathological scores and SARS CoV-2-induced pneumonia.

Phase IIa of the human clinical trial, AD17002-SC treats patients with mild cases of COVID-19, was approved by Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) and will be implemented in 2021.